Effective distance Ho Relativity Corrected distance Ho
Supernova z v peak M Mpc factor peak Mpc corrected
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
1 1992al 0.014 0.014 14.47 68.23 61.1 1.0001 14.4704 68.2 61.1
2 1992bo 0.018 0.018 15.61 115.35 46.4 1.00016 15.6107 115.4 46.4
3 1992bc 0.02 0.02 15.18 94.62 62.8 1.0002 15.1809 94.7 62.8
4 1992P 0.026 0.026 16.08 143.22 53.8 1.00033 16.0814 143.3 53.7
5 1992ag 0.026 0.026 16.28 157.04 49 1.00033 16.2814 157.1 49
6 1990O 0.03 0.03 16.26 155.6 57 1.00044 16.2619 155.7 56.9
7 1992bg 0.036 0.035 16.66 187.07 56.7 1.00063 16.6627 187.3 56.7
8 1992bl 0.043 0.042 17.19 238.78 52.9 1.00089 17.1938 239.2 52.8
9 1992bh 0.045 0.044 17.61 289.73 45.5 1.00097 17.6142 290.3 45.5
10 1990af 0.05 0.049 17.63 292.42 50 1.00119 17.6352 293.1 50
11 1993ag                                                                0.05 0.049 17.69 300.61 48.7 1.00119 17.6952 301.3 48.6
12 1993O 0.052 0.051 17.54 280.54 54.2 1.00129 17.5456 281.3 54.1
13 1992bs 0.063 0.061 18.24 387.26 47.3 1.00187 18.2481 388.7 47.2
14 1993B 0.071 0.068 18.33 403.65 50.9 1.00235 18.3402 405.5 50.8
15 1992ae 0.075 0.072 18.43 422.67 51.2 1.00262 18.4413 424.9 51.1
16 1992bp 0.079 0.076 18.27 392.64 58 1.00289 18.2825 394.9 57.8
17 1992br 0.088 0.084 19.28 625.17 40.4 1.00356 19.2954 629.6 40.2
18 1992aq 0.101 0.096 19.16 591.56 48.6 1.00463 19.1801 597.1 48.4
mean 51.9 mean 51.8
sd.mean 1.35 sd 1.35

Relativity
effective Distance Ho Relativity  Corrected Distance Corrected 
z v peak Mpc factor peak Mpc Ho
Supernova [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
1 1997I 0.172 0.157 20.17 942 50.1 1.0126 20.06 896 53.4
2 1997N 0.18 0.164 20.43 1062 46.3 1.0137 20.31 1005 49.6
3 1997ac 0.32 0.271 21.86 2051 39.6 1.0388 21.53 1762 47.9
4 1994F 0.354 0.294 22.38 2606 33.9 1.0463 21.99 2175 42.4
5 1994am 0.372 0.306 22.26 2466 37.2 1.0504 21.83 2025 47.6
6 1994H 0.374 0.307 21.72 1923 48 1.0509 21.29 1577 61.5
7 1997O 0.374 0.307 23.52 4406 20.9 1.0509 23.09 3612 26.8
8 1994an 0.378 0.31 22.58 2858 32.6 1.0518 22.14 2334 41.9
9 1995ba 0.388 0.317 22.65 2951 32.2 1.0542 22.19 2389 41.9
10 1995aw 0.4 0.324 22.36 2582 37.7 1.0571 21.88 2068 49.7
11 1997am 0.416 0.334 22.57 2844 35.3 1.0611 22.05 2244 47.5
12 1994al 0.42 0.337 22.55 2818 35.9 1.0621 22.03 2215 48.5
13 1994G 0.354 0.294 22.13 2323 38 1.0463 21.74 1938 47.6
14 1997Q 0.43 0.343 22.57 2844 36.2 1.0647 22.03 2214 49.5
15 1996cn 0.43 0.343 23.13 3681 28 1.0647 22.59 2865 38.3
16 1997ai 0.45 0.355 22.83 3206 33.2 1.0698 22.24 2448 46.6
17 1995az 0.45 0.355 22.51 2767 38.5 1.0698 21.92 2112 54
18 1996cm 0.45 0.355 23.17 3750 28.4 1.0698 22.58 2862 39.8
19 1995aq 0.453 0.357 23.17 3750 28.6 1.0706 22.58 2854 40.2
20 1992bi 0.458 0.36 23.11 3648 29.6 1.0719 22.51 2763 41.9
21 1995ar 0.465 0.364 23.33 4036 27.1 1.0738 22.71 3036 38.7
22 1997P 0.472 0.368 23.11 3648 30.3 1.0757 22.48 2724 43.6
23 1995ay 0.48 0.373 22.96 3404 32.9 1.0778 22.31 2522 47.8
24 1996cg 0.49 0.379 23.1 3631 31.3 1.0806 22.43 2663 46.1
25 1996ci 0.495 0.382 22.83 3206 35.7 1.0819 22.15 2340 53
26 1995as 0.498 0.383 23.71 4808 23.9 1.0828 23.02 3498 35.6
27 1997H 0.526 0.399 23.15 3715 32.2 1.0907 22.4 2626 49.7
28 1997L 0.55 0.412 23.51 4385 28.2 1.0976 22.7 3022 44.9
29 1996cf 0.57 0.423 23.27 3926 32.3 1.1035 22.41 2648 52.8
30 1997af 0.579 0.427 23.48 4325 29.6 1.1062 22.6 2889 49.1
31 1997F 0.58 0.428 23.46 4285 30 1.1065 22.58 2859 49.7
32 1997aj 0.581 0.428 23.09 3614 35.6 1.1068 22.21 2409 59.1
33 1997K 0.592 0.434 24.42 6668 19.5 1.1101 23.51 4391 32.9
34 1997S 0.612 0.444 23.69 4764 28 1.1162 22.74 3070 48.5
35 1995ax 0.615 0.446 23.19 3784 35.3 1.1171 22.23 2430 61.5
36  1997J 0.619 0.448 23.8 5012 26.8 1.1183 22.83 3204 46.9
37 1995at 0.655 0.465 23.27 3926 35.5 1.1296 22.21 2411 65.4
38 1996ck 0.656 0.466 23.57 4508 31 1.1299 22.51 2766 57.1
39  1997R 0.657 0.466 23.83 5082 27.5 1.1303 22.77 3114 50.7
40 1997G 0.763 0.513 24.47 6823 22.6 1.1651 23.14 3703 48.4
41 1996cl 0.828 0.539 24.65 7413 21.8 1.1875 23.16 3728 51.5
42 1997ap 0.83 0.54 24.32 6368 25.4 1.1882 22.82 3195 60.3
Mean 32.2 Mean 47.9
Sd mean 1 Sd mean 1.2

Notes to Tables 1 and 2

Column 1.  z values as reported.

Column 2.  Velocity of the supernova expressed as a fraction of the velocity of light.

Column 3.  Effective peak magnitude, M, as reported.

Column 4.   Distance derived from effective magnitude.

Column 5.   Hubble constant  derived from distance and velocity.

Column 6.   Relativity correction factor from T=t(1/(1-v2))0.5.

Column 7.   Relativity corrected peak magnitude, (M-(10log(relativity factor)).

Column 8.    Corrected distance derived from corrected peak magnitude

Column 9.    Hubble constant corrected for relativity effects

 

Hubble constant 47.6 52 73.5 Km.Mpc-1
Age (earth time) 13.7 12.5 8.87 x 109 years
Doubling time 9.68 8.86 6.27 x 109 years
Number of doublings 19.2 19.1 18.8
Age (cosmological time) 186 169 117 x 109 years
Rate of mass loss 1/5.87 1/5.33 1/3.69 x 10-18 per second
Total solar energy 3.42 3.71 5.37 x 1011 kge per second
Solar radiant energy 4.37 4.37 4.37 x 109 kge per second
Radiant fraction 1.3 1.2 0.8 % of solar energy


Figure 1  The geometry of the Hubble “constant” if time is unchanging.

V is the velocity of a supernova  and D is its distance. As our galaxy moves from E1 to E2 the  radius of the universe R expands at velocity i. Simple Euclidean geometry shows that the ratio of expansion of the universe to its radius matches the ratio of the velocity of a supernova to its distance from us. That velocity occurred at time t. The residual time to the age of the universe must be variable between different supernovas. That is the constant must vary.    But this is only true if the rate of change of time is constant.

Time Lines

*           Figure 2.  Time lines The upper two lines show the relationship between two systems of time at the beginning of the universe’s expansion, earth time starting with the Big Bang, and cosmological time starting with the expansion of the original black hole.  The lower two lines show the same relationship covering the age of the universe. It would take 28.88 x 2n/2 earth time years for light to cross the radius of the black hole. Each doubling time is worth 9.7 billion years of cosmological time