Part One

The Hubble constant, the ratio of the velocity of a galaxy to its distance describes acceleration. Therefore the denominator of the ratio should be time. The only fixed relationship between time and distance is c, the velocity of light. It follows that the denominator must be the time taken for light to travel that distance. There is dispute as to the exact value of the Hubble constant. Optical measurements place the value as around 50 kilometres per second per mega parsec where a mega parsec in a 3.26 million light years.  This corresponds to an acceleration of around 5 x 10-10 metres per second per second.  That is galaxies are accelerating away from earth at 5 ten billionths of a metre per sec, per sec. Despite this extremely low rate of acceleration the constancy of the acceleration means that after several billions of years the receding velocities of the furthermost galaxies will be a significant fraction of the velocity of light.    NASA believes the constant to be 73 km/sec/Mpc corresponding to an acceleration almost half as much again.

    The Hubble constant is an acceleration constant

Measurements of the outer stars of a galaxy show that they also have an acceleration of a little over 10-10 metres per second per second. This is more than eight times the expected value and has been attributed to an extra gravitational force arising from a dark matter within the galaxy mass.  That extra acceleration is only found in the outer stars of a galaxy but so much mass in that outer position would make impossible the spiral shape of a galaxy.  There must be an alternative explanation. Meanwhile NASA’s two Pioneer probes have also been found to be accelerating away from the solar system at a rate of a little over 10-10 metres per sec, per sec. 

Three different classes of mass, whole galaxies, individual stars, and the little  Pioneer probes all showing the same acceleration   points to a force that is independent of the gross mass of the moving object.  In this it is very similar to the acceleration produced by gravity. Like gravity the force producing the acceleration must arise from within the nuclei of each of the atoms that make up the various masses.  The late great German nuclear physicist Burkhard Heim calculated that in addition to the standard four fundamental forces of nature (the weak and strong forces with an atom, the electromagnetic force and gravity) there must be two additional forces. One of his forces corresponds exactly to the force producing the Hubble acceleration.  But if it is a fundamental force of nature it must be constant throughout the universe and constant in all time frames (a time frame is where time is slower or faster than it is on earth.  E.g., in a very fast rocket where according to relativity theory time is slowed by the high velocity. The product of the electromagnetic force, light, has a constant velocity in all time frames, that is it is constant in relation to the speed or prevailing pace of time)

    The Hubble constant is describing a fifth fundamental force of nature

 Such as force renders unnecessary any other source of energy to account for the unexpected high acceleration of the outer stars of a galaxy. That is there is no need to postulate the existence of dark matter.

Dark     matter does not exist

Type 1 supernovas, exploding neutron stars, have a limited range of mass and the light from these supernovas have very similar brightness and decay patterns. They therefore make excellent standard candles from which the distances can be calculated.  Data from the furthermost type 1 supernovas that are  receding at a velocities approaching the speed of light,  after allowing for  time distortion  produced by relativity,  confirm that the Hubble constant is indeed constant across the whole universe.  The Hubble constant, as a force of acceleration, fulfils all the criteria required to be classified as a fifth fundamental force of nature. This force is responsible for the expansion of the universe.  It does interact with the gravitational force and this interaction causes mass to accelerate towards the source of that gravitational force.

There is however a problem. The Hubble constant allows for the calculation of the age of the universe in earth time. Based on this a simple geometrical analysis, using the rate of change in radius of an expanding sphere, shows that the Hubble constant should not be constant. This is because of the time taken for light to travel from the supernova to earth. Examination of the relevant equations shows that mathematically this is easily overcome if time is, and has always been expanding.  Thus when the universe was half its present age the pace of time was twice as fast, the period of the second was half its present amount, there were two seconds for each of our present seconds where we now have one. Halving the age again  and the process is repeated there are now four seconds for   each present second, and so on back to the beginning of time.  The important conclusion is that the Hubble constant can only be constant if time is expanding. There is no other way.  .But when measured the Hubble constant is indeed constant.

     The Hubble acceleration constant can only be constant if time is and always has been expanding

In the past hypothetical clocks would have ticked faster. Soon after the start of time they would have ticked very quickly indeed. There were approximately a million seconds to our present second. A year then would correspond to half a minute of present earth time.  Time has been expanding, or slowing, exponentially to its present rate of expansion which is approximately 1/ 6 x 1018 of a second per second, where 1018 is a billion billion.  In the million years of mankind’s existence it has hardly changed. Small wonder that the natural assumption is that the period of the second, time, has been unchanging since the beginning of time.  But that is only an assumption. The relevance of all this is that the universe has its own system of time and everything in nature adheres to that system. Thus when there were a million seconds to our present second the velocity of light of light would have been a million times faster than it is now.  The rate of expansion of the universe would have been a million times faster.  This explains a number of paradoxes within astronomy—such as  how galaxies  can travel  such immense distances (over ten billion light years)  from their point of origin, go through their evolution,  have their supernovas and then for the light from their supernovas to  travel to us all within 13+  billion years

     The universe has its own system of time, herein called cosmological time, and all nature’s  fundamental   constants adhere to it.

It takes a set period of cosmological time for the period of the second to double that is for a second to slow to half its rate.  This enables a calculation of the age of the universe in its time system. That is the universe is around 160 billion years old although the figure varies according to the exact value of the Hubble constant.  The rate of Cosmological time has converged to be that of earth time.

     Examination of the various equations involving time and mass in general physics, relativity physics and quantum physics all show that mass and time are inversely related. If time expands, that is the period of the second expands then mass must be reduced. But as Einstein showed mass and energy are related, that is mass is merely energy in a very highly concentrated form.  Since energy can neither be created or destroyed loss of mass must mean the release of energy, lots of energy.

Time and mass are inversely related and the expansion of time causes the release of energy.

About 98% of that energy is gravitational energy, the rest is electromagnetic energy (heat and light) and the energy required for Hubble acceleration. The work done by gravity, whether accelerating a pebble to fall to earth in a straight line, or raising the water of the oceans to form the tides, or nudging the planets constantly to change direction so that they orbit the sun, pulling mass together to form stars, or pulling whole galaxies towards each other so that they collide, that work consumes enormous amounts of energy. Gravity waves, like electromagnetic waves, are waves of energy.  There is so much energy it must come from the reduction of mass. The expansion of time allows the release of that energy.

     Gravitational energy is a consequence of the effects of the expansion of time on mass.

Like X-rays, gravity waves can pass through mass, except where they hit nucleons where some of the energy will be used to cause the mass, be it a pebble or a planet, to move towards the source of gravity. Other gravity waves, not intercepted by the planet or what have you, will spread sideways so that the wave is re-constituted. This is very similar to the way waves of the ocean when approaching a beach and striking a small rock, reform on the far side of that rock to create the surf on that beach. That is gravity will cause the same acceleration on any article irrespective of its mass, or shape or whether it is head on or broadside on. 

The universe is conjectured to have arisen in one place.  That place according to the Big Bang theory was a singularity, an extreme form of microdot.  There are considerable difficulties with that hypothesis as it neglects the effect of gravity.  Even if the mass of the universe was in the form of pure energy, a significant part of that energy would have been gravitational energy.  Despite whatever force is applied nothing can exceed the velocity of light.  The gravitational force if it matched the velocity of light per second would prevent all other forms of energy from escaping from that singularity no matter what the radiant or other pressure was.  Not until enough gravitational energy had leaked away could the remaining energy start to escape. But by then there would not have been enough gravitational energy left to service all the mass that condensed out of that remaining energy.  But as that mass increased, from the inverse relationship between mass and time, so the period of the second shortened until the pace of time was extremely fast.  Then as the mass dispersed with the expansion of the universe produced by the Hubble acceleration force so time started slowing.

     It is the expansion of the universe that is the cause of universal time slowing

 

 If all the mass of the universe was concentrated in one spot it would make a black hole of approximately 28 light years radius.  At the edge of that radius time is at a standstill.  As gravitational energy leaked away into the empty void that is space so the boundary of the black hole (the event horizon) would have retreated to within the black hole, allowing some of the mass or its equivalent to escape and more importantly for time to start. At the beginning the mass would have been such that the primordial black hole would have had a radius approaching almost half of our Galaxy.  This enables a calculation of the age of the universe in cosmological time. Figure 2 of part two of this presentation demonstrates the calculation. The period of the second has doubled between 18.8 and 19.2 times yielding an age of the universe in cosmological time of between 186 and 117 billion years., the value depends on the precise value of the Hubble constant.