1. The sun.  The radiant energy output of the sun is the equivalent of almost 5 billion kilograms of mass every second.  Before the advent of Einstein’s mass energy equation the source of so much energy was a complete mystery. The equation seemed to solve the mystery. Mass could be converted to energy via hydrogen fusion. The assumption was made that this was the source of solar energy. There was no proof but there was no other answer available.  However there are three major difficulties with this assumption.

[A] At 24% there is an excessive amount of helium in the sun. If all this came from hydrogen fusion energy output per second would have been five times its present value throughout the 5.5 billion years the sun has existed. This would have reduced the earth desiccated mass of rock like the planet Mercury.  Even if the sun started with a dowry of 10% Helium, as Jupiter did, the earth would be almost as hot as Venus.

[B] The stability of the sun. The geological history of the earth shows that the sun, like all similar stars, has had a stable radiant energy output throughout most of its life.  With the production of energy the equivalent of 5 billion kilograms of mass per second this means on average every hour in a 9 kilometres cube a kilogram of helium is being formed from hydrogen fusion.  In the middle of the sun the cube would have been much smaller. But the energy would have great difficulty in escaping as each cube is surrounded by similar cubes doing the same thing.  The temperature in the centre would escalate rapidly to that of Helium fission.  But helium at very high temperatures is unstable and undergoes fission.  This is the source of energy for the most violent explosions in the universe—supernovas. That is if hydrogen fusion is the energy source the sun could not possibly be stable for billions of years. It would have exploded long ago.

[C] The energy balance of hydrogen fusion. The fusion temperature is around 1 million degrees.  Hydrogen atoms move with temperature at a rate of around 3.4 metres per sec per degree Centigrade. To achieve fusion temperature the hydrogen atoms must be accelerated to a velocity of just over 1% of the velocity of light. That takes a lot of energy. It is the equivalent of 0.8% of the mass of hydrogen atoms. But this is the amount of mass lost by the hydrogen atoms when they fuse. There is no surplus energy. But the problem does not stop there. Helium atoms do not fuse or undergo fission until a much higher temperature is reached.  There must be a strong binding force which holds the nucleons with the helium nucleus together that resists fusion or fission. But force requires yet more energy.  The total energy required to achieve fusion is greater than that resulting from the loss of mass of the participating hydrogen atoms.  Hydrogen fusion absorbs energy. It is endothermic.  This explains why laboratories around the world despite more than 20 years of effort have failed to achieve surplus energy from hydrogen fusion. It should be noted that the success of the H bombs can be explained because the temperature reached by the bombs nuclear triggers was sufficiently high that the newly minted helium underwent fission with the output of huge amounts of energy.

     Hydrogen fusion absorbs energy. It is endothermic.

For the sun the expansion of time with its effect on mass provides plenty of energy. Radiant energy amounts to approximately 1% of the energy released. Most of the rest, 98%, is gravitational energy.  Hitherto there has not been an explanation or an accounting for the energy used in doing the work of gravity. The curved space time hypothesis cannot account for the movement of three or more bodies (as in groups of galaxies or movement of the stars in the globular clusters).

     Hydrogen fusion plays a key role in absorbing excess heat energy. It is due to this that the sun is able to maintain a stable thermal output over billions of years. The same applies to all other stars. But in maintaining stability the stars are using up their hydrogen.  Once the hydrogen becomes seriously depleted the checks on rising temperature are reduced. Core temperatures with rise to the level of helium fission and the result is a catastrophic explosion, that is a supernova

That 98% of the energy released by time slowing is gravitational energy can be verified by examining the performance of the moon in generating tidal energy in our oceans. 


2. The Moon. From the known mass of the moon the expansion of time enables the determination of the rate of loss of mass and so amount of energy radiating from the lunar surface per second. The fraction of this that is intercepted by the earth can be calculated.  The moon creates two tides every approximately 12 hours and the energy available for this can also be calculated. This energy per tide will be distributed as an arch whose apex moves ever Westward with the rotation of the earth. The apex of the arch represents the energy available for peak high tide when the moon is overhead.  This turns out to be 12313 Joules (when the Hubble constant is 47.6km/sec/Mega parsec giving a cosmological age 186 billion years) per square metre per tide. This is enough energy to raise a square column of water of side length 1 metre to a height of approximately 1.6 metres.

The actual height of the tide will vary somewhat with the local geography. The best example of this distortion is in the Bay of Funday. Reports from various islands in the Pacific Ocean report a peak high tide of between 1.9 and 2.2 metres.

Considering the various uncertainties involved in the prediction (the exact  mass of the moon, the exact distance from earth etc)   calculating what the peak height of high tide  will be  simply from knowing the mass of an object a quarter of a million miles away is a remarkable proof of the expansion of time hypothesis.

If it was not for the water in the oceans the moon's gravitational energy would produce a significant precession of the earth’s revolution. Because the water is not firmly attached to the sea floor its lift would transfer the centre of gravity.  This is counterbalanced by a tide on the opposite side of the earth. This must have the same mass and therefore the same height. The energy involved is that required to lift manyt millions of tons of water.

The moon is indirectly responsible for another precession of the earth’s spin.  This is very slow—a period of approximately 11 years. It is the last remnant of a much greater precession that occurred when the moon first formed.  This was what a large meteor of size somewhere between that of Ireland and the United Kingdom smashed at high velocity into the earth. The resultant energy was enough to cause a mass 6% of the earth’s mass to be lifted off the earth at escape velocity to eventually form the moon.  The resultant crater was as big if not bigger than the Pacific Ocean and a maximum depth in excess of 50 miles.  The loss of 6% of the mass from one side of a spinning object will cause marked precession. Semi liquid magma flowed in to fill the crater restoring the balance.  That flow undermined the earth’s crust so that on average   the crust descended about two kilometres. This caused a great mechanical strain on the crust, and at a particularly large mass Gondwanaland fractured in a number of places creating the earth’s various plates. These also have slowly flowed towards the crater site but the balancing job is not quite complete.

One other effect of that giant meteor event the exposure of sub a high area of molten rock meant that the waters of the earth returned to the crater (from which they had been pushed by a giant tsunami) they spilled on to such a hot surface that much of the water split into oxygen and hydrogen (water dissociates into these two gases at high temperature).  Since then there has been subduction of the edges of the plates carrying sand deep into the earth. Sand at temperature of 1000 degrees (well below the temperature of magma) dissociates into oxygen and silicon a fact used by the manufacturers of silicon computer chips). It is a sobering thought that multi cellular life with organ differentiation and subsequent evolution only became possible with the advent of the formation of the moon. But we owe our existence to that lucky strike.


3. Enceladus is a small moon in an outer ring of Saturn. It provides the clearest proof of the expansion of time concept. Its density shows that it is approximately 98% ice. Its surface temperature is approximately 70oK, that is it is radiating out a considerable amount of heat energy. .   Ice is a poor conductor of heat so that to maintain the surface temperature requires a high temperature gradient from within the moon. At its south pole is one of the greatest spectacles in the universe. Ice fountains 750 kilometres high are emerging from small fissures. The gravitational strength at the surface of Enceladus is 6.6 thousandth of that of earth. The same energy that powers the ice fountains on earth would project fountains 5 kilometres high. Had that been on the Tibetan plateau the fountain would have been as high as |Mount Everest. The only source of energy that could do that on this moon is high pressure steam. The fissures are the result of tremendous strains pulling apart the 100 or so kilometres of deep frozen ice. They resemble similar fissures seen in Iceland where plate tectonics are slowly pulling that island apart. The steam is scouring the walls of the fissures but immediately on emerging from the surface the steam freezes.   About 10% of the ice ejectate is at or above the escape velocity contributing to Saturn’s E-ring where Enceladus is placed.

The only source of the tremendous amount of heat energy is from the effect of time expansion on the mass of ice. Most of the heat is trapped inside and at the corer the temperature builds up, the ice melts, boils, and then builds up more and more pressure. Calculation shows that the amount of energy that e escapes is not enough to meet the production.  The situation is thus that of an overheated boiler whose relief valve is insufficient to limit the internal pressure. The end result would be that the boiler would explode. Similarly with Enceladus. Unless the fissures can widen sufficiently, and that is opposed by the strength of perhaps a 100 kilometre deep frozen ice wall, Enceladus will also eventually explode and its fragments will add to Saturn’s magnificent ring system.


It follows that the most likely explanation for that ring system is also the explosion of similar ice moons, all due to the expansion of time and its effect on mass.

     Enceladus provides the  best proof of the expansion of time and its effect on mass

The most likely explanation of Saturn’s ring system is the past shattering of small ice moons due to the expansion of time


4. Jupiter shows two effects of time slowing. The first is the surface temperature of that planet. It is far too warm. Jupiter is a gas giant and there is no evidence of enough rocky mass containing radioactive material that could generate so much heat for such a giant.  Universal time slowing could generate enough heat and also generate Jupiter’s gravitational strength that holds the gas giant together.  The second effect occurs at Jupiter’s Equator. Jupiter’s rotational period is approximately 10 hours. Its size is such that its the equator  the velocity  shows a small time slowing, time expansion, due to relativity. That releases energy around the equator, some of which is heat energy. This is enough to generate the huge equatorial storms despite the relatively cold temperature.


5. The earth’s heat. The amount of heat generated within the earthy is twice that expected from its radioactive content. This is fully accounted for by the expansion of time hypothesis.

6. The gas giants. The surface temperature of the other gas Giants, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus are also much warmer than the temperature of the environment that they are in. They are so far from the sun that solar radiation cannot account for their heat.  As gas giants by definition there is little to no radioactive material within those planets, certainly not enough to heat such large bodies.

 7. The background microwave radiation. This radiation has certain characteristics that rule out that arose from any type of Big Bang. The Bug Bang, if it ever occurred would have been at a tremendously high temperature. That would generate very high frequency microwaves. Radiation whilst in transit cannot change their frequency otherwise a chain of microwaves would stretch and that would mean the front end of such a chain is travelling faster than the waves at the rear of the train. That violates the constancy of the velocity of light and totally undermines all relativity theory. The second argument is that the amplitude of these microwaves, and so the strength of their signal is almost uniform.  That means that they have travelled more or less the same distance as amplitude decreases with distance according to the Inverse Square Law.  The third argument is that the waves are coming to earth from all directions, North, South, East and West.  That is the source must be all about us, whereas the Big Bang postulates a single source imply that there is some sort of reflective surface. The microwave background shows patches where the temperature is very slightly raised above that of most of the background radiation. Radiation does not stand still. It must spread to achieve uniformity. Hot spots imply that something is glowing but no such thing has been found in deep space which matches the angular size of some of the hot spots. They would have to be larger than any galaxy.

The solar system was spawned from the explosion of a large supernova. The debris of supernovas includes a dusty rim.  The solar system is surrounded by clouds, the Oort clouds.  They would be expected to contain a significant amount of dust which would vary slightly and randomly within or just beyond the Oort clouds. The expansion of time would cause the mass of the dust to reduce causing the emission of a very feeble amount of radiant energy. That energy would radiate both outwards into further space but also inwards towards the centre of the sphere. The radiation travelling inwards could not disperse its energy, but rather the opposite it would concentrate that energy, the waves summating so that a detectable signal would arise.  Because the dust cloud surrounds the solar system but it is some distance (minimum 12 light hours) that there would be little variation in strength during the time that the earth orbits the sun.  Where the dust is a little thicker there would be slightly more energy generated, forming the hot spots.  The dust would absorb a small fraction of the light from distant supernovas and variation in the thickness of the dust would account for the difficulties in establishing the exact value of the Hubble constant.

     The background microwave radiation cannot  be the residue of any Big Bang


Additional evidence

There are three paradoxes which belie the age of the universe being 13.7 billion years.

A. The globular clusters. Within our Galaxy there are more than 150 dense clusters of very old stars. Some are more than 13.7 billion years old. That is they are apparently older than the age of the universe.

B. The Sloan sky survey. This has shown that we are surrounded by galaxies that are more than 10 billion light years distant. Yet the sum of the distance of two galaxies on opposite sides of the universe in light years cannot exceed the age of the universe

C. The time paradox. Looking at very distant galaxies is looking back in time. But at the time of emission of that light from those distant galaxies which we now perceive the universe was very much smaller and therefore they would have been nearer. Which leaves a question as to why it has taken so long for that light to reach us. With the expansion of time concept and the cosmological age being so great these paradoxes disappear.



Key words:  Hubble constant, Mass-time relationship, time expansion, solar energy, hydrogen fusion. Dark matter, dark energy   Big Bang theory\