8. The Technical Proofs: Consequences of time expansion

If time is progressively expanding or slowing and through its effect on mass causing the release of enormous amounts of energy, this should produce a number of effects within the solar system. These can be tested. Outside the solar system time expansion also provides explanations for some otherwise inexplicable observations.

 

1. The Sun: Solar radiant energyand the sun’s helium content.

A common assumption is that solar energy is the result of hydrogen fusion. This assumption followed Einstein’sshowing the relationship between mass and energy. But a quantitative analysis shows that this cannot account for the sun’s radiant energy output, and the sun’s long term stability. There are three different strands of evidence supporting this conclusion.

Strand a. There is an excessive amount of helium in the sun. The sun’s helium  concentration is 24% (Uvarov and Isaacs, 1993). Solarenergy reaches earth at a rate of 1365 joules.m-2s-1. This is the solar-Earth constant. In contrast Mercury has a constant that is  6.67 greater, the effect of which has been to desiccate that planet. The solar-Mars constant is 600 j.m-2s-1 which should produce polar ice caps that extendto over a third of the Martian surface.

The solar-Earth constant occurs at an average distance of 149.6 x 106 km (the sun to earth distance). This equates to the total radiant energy output per second from the sun is 4.2 x 109 kge (where 1 kge is the energy equivalent of a kilogram of mass and has a value of 9 x 1016 Joules, or c2). Assuming the age of the sun is 5.5 x 109 years (earth time) then the total radiant energy output for this time would be 7.3 x 1026 kge. Hydrogen fusion requires that for each kg of helium generated the contributing hydrogen atoms must lose 0.8%of their mass as energy. That is fusing 125 kg of hydrogen should release 1 kge of energy.  If the solar constant has been constant (or nearly so) for that time this would have produced  9.48 x 1028 kg  of helium. That is the solar helium concentration should be slightly less than 5%. Instead it is 24%.  A five fold increase in solar radiation for the 5.5 billion years of the sun’s existencewould produce the observed helium concentration butif so  the radiation would render the solar-Earth radiation constant similar to that of Mercury. Earth would be considerably hotter than Venus. Our oceans could not exist.Even if the sun started with a dowry of 10% helium (similar to the concentration  in Jupiter, slightly more than the concentration in Neptune) it would need a earth-solar constant  three times its present value to make good the deficit, and Earth’s temperature would approach that of Venus.

Strand b. The stability of the sun. The solar constant means that every hour the sun should have fused 1.97 x 1015 kg of Hydrogen. Given the sun  has a mass of 1.98 x 1030 kg, it is producing 1 kg of helium per 1015 kg of solar mass per hour. The density of the sun is 1,400 kg.m-3.  1015 kg corresponds to 714 cubic kilometres of solar mass.This means  on average in the sun within a volume of a 9 km cube there will be a 1 kg of helium produced every hour. In the centre of the sun where the density would be significantly greater  this volume would be substantially less.Any heat of the fusion  would have considerable difficulty of escaping as all neighbouring zones would be producing similar amounts of heat, that is the thermal gradient would be very slight. The gradient is less than 10C per thousand kilometres.  Meanwhile in that hypothetical 9 km cube every hour another 2.4 x 1014 joules of energy is being produced. As a result the temperature of the cube should rise until it reaches helium fusion temperaturewhen the cube  would explode, as would its neighbouring zones.The sun  and all G starscould not last for billions of years.It is apparent that the restraining element is hydrogen. It is only when the hydrogen is sufficiently depleted that a star explodes as a supernova.

Strand c. Hydrogen fusion is endothermic. A common misconception is that hydrogen fusion could be a substantial source of surplus energy.But there are two serious flaws. Hydrogen fusion results from the collision of two hydrogen nuclei  moving at around 0.8% of the velocity of light. At this velocity each contributing hydrogen nucleus loses 0.8% of its mass. But the energy needed to accelerate a  hydrogen nucleusto that velocity equals the energy equivalence of 0.8% of that mass. There is no surplus after repaying that original energy investment. If some of the energy released is used to “strengthen” the newly minted helium nucleus the energy balance becomes negative.  The second flaw  is that the helium produced, although at the same temperature as the fusing hydrogen nuclei does not fuse, despite individual helium nucleicolliding at high velocity. The collision energy is substantial. In contrast the fusing hydrogen nuclei are subject to one quarter of that collision energy. The helium nuclei must have acquired additional internal energy to maintain their integrity. This additional energy is needed,  in part to cope with internal charge repulsion from its two protons, in part to supply energy to change the quarkcomposition of two of its nucleons so that two protons become two neutrons, which have a slightly greater mass, but most importantly in part to bind the nucleons together and stop them all flying apart. That binding energy is sufficient to negate the collision energy at the hydrogen fusion temperature. It is not until the temperature, and so velocity and momentum of the colliding helium nuclei is much higher that the collision energy can overcome that binding energy.  Then some of the helium can fuse. But helium at such high temperatures is unstable and is more likely to explode releasing its mass as energy.

This provides the energy of supernovas, both types 1 and 2. Of the great type 2 supernova that spawned the solar system only a minute amount ended up as elements of greater mass than helium, that is helium explosion and disintegration is very much more likely than fusion. This fortuitouslyaccounts for the energy yield of H bombs. The heat from the nuclear triggers was such that the newly minted helium atoms that were heated to the temperature required for helium explosion.

But helium’s binding energy can only come from the energy released by accelerating the hydrogen nuclei to their fusion velocity. Hydrogen fusion must be endothermic. This accounts for why laboratories around the world have failed to obtain surplus energy from controlled hydrogen fusion despite years of effort. 

 It follows that the source of solar energy cannot be hydrogen fusion, but rather that the endothermic nature of hydrogen fusion pays an important partin preventing the sun, and similar stars from over-heating.If any area within the sun becomes excessively hot more hydrogen nuclei are accelerated to fusion and the result iscooling. It is only when the available supply of hydrogen becomes insufficient to meet demand that the stage is setfor a possible supernova.

 The amount of energy released by the sun can only come from some form of mass to energy conversion.  In the absence of  hydrogen fusion as an energy source the only system available whereby mass converts to energy is time slowing. The expansion of time concept predicts that there is plenty of energy available  even after allowing for the endothermic  nature ofhydrogen fusion.

 The inverse relationship between time and massmeans that, per second, the sun is losing mass at a rate of 1/the age of the universe in seconds. If  Hois 47.6 km.s-1.Mpc-1 the sun is losing mass from time dilatation at a present rate of 3.42 x 1011 kge/second, of which 4.37 x 109 kge is radiant energyEven if the binding energyof Helium consumed twice the radiant energy outputthis accounts for less than 4% of the energy shed because of time slowing. The rest is shared between providing gravitational energy and acceleration energy.

It should be noted that there is as yet no satisfactory explanation as to the fuel source of solar gravity and the energy expended in sustaining the planetary orbits. (Photons passingclose to the sun, seen during a solar eclipse, show that any curvature of space is extremely slight, and is grossly insufficient to account for the planetary orbits.) It is suggested that time expansion through its effect on mass does providea satisfactory explanation as to the source of   the sun’s gravitational energy output.

 

 2. Jupiter. The expansion of time affectsJupiter in two different  ways

(a). The solar radiation constant for earth is 1400 Joules.m2s-1..For Jupiter at its equator  it is 51 Joules.m-2s-1, very considerably less than earth receives at the Arctic Circle. Yet at the Arctic Circle it is too cold for massive tornados, although these abound at Jupiter’s equator. Jupiter’s equator is 448,078 km and the rotation period of 9h 50 minutes means that the surface velocity is 12.6 km.s-1. At this velocity time is slowed slightly and mass is reduced. If the gas at the equator came from the edge of the equatorial belt,  it would shed energy at a rate of 0.8 Megawatts.kg-1. Similarly gas spiralling out from the equator to the sub-equatorial  zone would absorb energy at the same rate.   The consequent temperature differences would generate huge differences in atmospheric pressure creating massive storms. The Coriolis effect wouold causee storms would form cells on either side of the equator.There is no other source of energy to fuel these storms.

(b)Jupiter is composed largely of hydrogen, helium (~14%), with some ammonia. Its inclination towards the sun is very slight and its orbital period is 11.86 years. At either  Pole an area greater than the Pacific Ocean receives no solar energy at all for nearly  six years at a time. The only source of external heat is  the background microwave radiation, of ~2.70K.Helium condenses into liquid at 5.45oK. Hydrogen condenses at an even higher temperature.  Ammonia should condense, freeze and separate out to fall to the interiorat temperatures well above this. Yet at the poles Jupiter’s atmosphere is still gaseous. There is no sign of a mass streaming of gas towards to a darkened Pole as what should be denser and colder gas sinks into the interior. It follows that there must be a source of heat within the planet that is broadly equal (excluding the equatorial zones) across the surface of the planet.  Jupiter’s density and size preclude a radioactive source. The expansion of time through its effect on mass produces heat and would have thisdistribution of heat energy. It is this which ensures that Jupiter remains as a gas giant.

 

3. The Moon and the tides in the Mid Pacific Ocean:

 The moon is responsible for earth’s oceans tides. This involves a substantial transfer of energy. The moon has a mass of 7.35 x 1022 kg. If Ho is 47.6 km.s-1Mpc-1 then the expansion of timemeans that it is losing mass at a rate of 1/5.87 x 1018 per second.  ~98% of this energy is gravitational energy of which the earth intercepts a small fraction.Lunar gravity  arrives at the earth at a rate of approximately  5100 Joules per  second per square metre. When directly overhead, over the 12.5 hours of the tidal cycle the gravitational  energy input of a strip 1 km wide and the length  corresponding to the diameter of the earth would fall on 12.5/24of the earth’s circumference, half of which would energise a tide facing the moon.. Because of the earth’s rotation this distribution of this energy would be arch shaped, forming avery stretched sinusoidal shape   with the apex of the arch moving westward. Calculation of the energy per square meter at the apex of the arch shows that this is 12313 Joules.This energy is enough to raise a 1 metre square column of water against earth’s gravity to a height of 1.6 metres.

At the same time there is a compensatory tide on the far side of the earth. The moon itself is orbiting the earth and pulling the tidal water towards it. This mass of water is substantial and this lunar-ward displacement would create a significant precession of the earth’s rotation.Earth has a mechanism of avoiding precession by redistributing its mass (the greatest shift occurred when the earth lost over 6% of its mass from one side of the globe when it lost the mass that was to become the moon. The result was continental drift which is still on-goingThe mass per square metre  of the Pacific Ocean is less than the mass per square metreof the American Continent  and this must affect the balance of the rotating earth, causing the American continent to drift ever westwards). To minimise the effect of the moon in causing earth  precession a mass of water is thrown away from the earth’s centre of gravity on the far side of the earth from the moon. That mass must equal the mass of the tide on the near side.     The energy for this must come from the moon.

Nevertheless the expansion of time through its effect on the moon predicts that when the moon is overhead there will be a high tide in mid Pacific ocean, of 1.6 metres. But tidal height is affected by the local geography  which can funnel the tidal input raising the local  level.   The peak high tide reported from various Pacific islands ranges from 1.9-2.25 metres.  That is thereis a reasonable  concordance between the prediction of the tidal height produced by lunar time slowing, and what is observed.

 

4. Saturn’s moons, a theory of gravity and Enceladus’s heat production

If Ho is 47.6 km.s-1Mpc-1 then the expansion of time causes Saturn to lose mass at a rate of 9.68 x 108 kg.s-1. This will shed as energy. From the Sun and moon data above approximately 98% will be gravitational energy.  This will radiate in all directions and some of this will be intercepted by Saturn’s many moons causing them to orbit the planet. The moons have a wide variety of mass, diameter, shape and distance from Saturn. Gravitational attraction of large bodies does not depend upon the total amount of gravitational energy intercepted. Thus two galaxies on a collision course will have the same collision velocity whether they are face to face or one is end on.

Enceladus is a small ice moon, mass 8.4 x 1019 kg, that lies in Saturn’s E ring at 238020 km from the centre of Saturn. Its orbital period is 1.37 days giving it an orbital velocity of 12.6 km.s-1. If Saturn’s gravity suddenly ceased Enceladus would continue at this velocity as a tangent to its orbit. This allows calculation of how much it has to be nudged towards Saturn every second. From Pythagoras this distance is given by the equation

 Equation 13                            

(R+D) v2 + R2

D = v2(2R)-1

where D is the nudge distance in metres, v is its orbital velocity in metres per second and R is the orbital radius from the centre of Saturn, also in metres.   Equation   13   can be used for any orbiting body. For Enceladus this nudge distance is 0.355 m.s-1. To move such a large mass that distance takes work and so energy. This too can be calculated

Equation14                             Energy/c2  =M x D2/2

energy is in kge units.For Enceladus 58.8 kge per second is expended for it to stay in orbit. For comparison Saturn’s moon Tethys, which has a mass of 6.27 x 1020 kg, an orbital radius of 294660 km, an orbital velocity of 11.3 km.s-1, and a nudge distance of 0.22 metres, 165 kge.s-1 is expended for it to stay in orbit although it is further from Saturn than is Enceladus.This energy is considerably greater than the gravitational energy radiating from Saturn that is intercepted by Tethys.This applies to all Saturn’s moons. This extra energy can only come from the individual moons, that is from the nucleons that make up the masses of these moons.

A hypothesis of the mechanics of gravitational attraction is proposed. Every nucleon emits gravitational energy and this comes through the whole surface area of the nucleon. Equally every nucleon produces acceleration energy and this too is at the whole surface area of the nucleon. The acceleration energy acts on the surface of the nucleon becoming a compression force holding the nucleon together. The range of the acceleration energy must be extremely short as if the nucleon is moving that fraction of the acceleration energy at the prow of the nucleon is absorbed into the nucleon.Meanwhile at the stern of the moving nucleon the compressive force is unopposed causing the nucleon (and ultimately the whole mass) to move. This is the basis of the Hubble acceleration. Acceleration energy and gravity are mutually opposed, and cancel each other out. The hypothesis is that gravitational waves are very long and travel at the speed of light. .They also spread sideways with each edge travelling at half the speed of light.This is a consequence of the inverse square law.The spread only ceases when one edge meets the edge of an adjacent wave that at its edge has the same density of gravitational energy. As a wave of gravitational energy strikes the surface of the nucleon thoseportions of  acceleration energy facing the gravitational source are transiently inhibited and so the acceleration portion on the distal side of the nucleon then cause acceleration towards the gravitational source..The wave cannot pass through the nucleon and so sweeps around it reforming on the distal side. Some energy is lost, reducing the local energy density and so more gravitational energy flows in from the sides.The analogy is a broad wave of ocean approaching a beach and striking some rocks on its approach. The wave reforms after passing the rock albeit at a very slightly lower energy level (wave height) to form the surf that will crash on the beach. The gravitational wave continues through the mass repeating the process and drawing more gravitational energy from the sides.The extent of the inhibition of the acceleration portions on the proximal side of the nucleon depends upon the intensity (amplitude|) of the energy of the gravitational wave, and with it the level of acceleration of the mass towards the gravitational source.

This hypothesis accounts for the apparent excess of energy required for the moons to stay in orbit around Saturn, as well as the solar planets to orbit the sun. It also accounts for the fact that gravitational acceleration of mass is independent of the amount of mass. It also accounts for the observation that Gravity casts no shadow, as seen when the solar planets are in a line pointing towards the sun yet their orbits around the sun are unperturbed.

 Enceladus is not completely spherical although almost so. It has a surface area of approximately 780,000 square kilometres. It has an extremely high albedo reflecting most of what little warmth it receives from the sun. It has a surface temperature of close to 70oK. It is surrounded by space in which the energy density is fractionally above zero. A reasonable comparison is that a water radiator with a flat surface in a domestic central heating system that is 70o above ambient would radiate energy at a rate of around 1kw per square metre of its surface area. Applying this to Enceladus’s area means that Enceladus is radiating approximately 0.009 kge per second as heat.

 Ice is an extremely poor conductor of heat.With a wall of perhaps 100 km of ice from its centre the temperature at the centre must be very substantially above the boiling point of water.The centre must consist of a cavern containing very high pressure steam.  This would impose considerably tension within Enceladus’s icy coat, just as plate tectonics produce considerable tension on Iceland—causing parallel fissures of some length on that island.    Similar fissures are seen at Enceladus’s South Pole.

From those fissures erupt huge fountains that reach up to 750 km although most fountains are much lower.The velocity of these fountains is such that some 10% of the ejectate reaches escape velocity (0.212 km.s-1) and contribute to Saturn’s E ring. The fountains  may start as steam but as they expand the steam freezes almost immediately into ice particles.  The fountains cannot start as water as during transit through perhaps a 100 km of ice the viscosity of water would slow it down and the water would freeze blocking the channel. The remainder of the fountains fall back to the surface giving an unusually smooth surface. Enceladus’s low mass, 8.40 x 1019 kg, means that at its surface the gravitational force is 0.066m.s-2.

 It is possible to gain an insight into the amount of energy involved in these plumes. The assumptions are that the fissures are, on average, 10 metres wide and total 25 km in length with the plumes averaging 400 km in height. The volume of the plumes can be estimated although it is mostly space. If ice forms 0.1% of the volume of the plumes then the plumes contain one cubic kilometre of ice.   It would take 2.2 hours for an ice fragment to fall 400 km such is the low gravity of Enceladus, with each cubic metre using 12 million joules of gravitational energy.  It follows that ice is being injected into the plumes at a rate of approximately one hundred and twenty thousand cubic metres per second. It takes 1.6 x 109 joules to raise the temperature of 1 cubic metre of ice from 70oK to 200oC as compressed superheated steam. That is the plumes account for 2 x 1014 joules, 0.002 kge, of heat energy per second. With 120,000 cubic metres of ice falling every second this will account for another about 1.5 x 1012 Joules as with negligible friction losses as the energy required to lift the ice in the plumes will equal the gravitational energy cost of falling back to Enceladus.

Although these figures are extremely crude and could in error by a factor of x 5 or more they indicate that Enceladus produces huge amounts of heat energy.  But from where?  Gravitational heating has been speculated as accounting for the heat of some of Jupiter’s moons with highly elliptical orbits, but Enceladus has an almost circular orbit and in any case the gravitational energy required to maintain a stable orbit means there is little over to produce much significant heat.

The expansion of time effect could easily account for it.  If Ho is 47.6 km.s-1Mpc-1, then Enceladus is losing 14.3 kg of mass as energy every second of which perhaps as much as 3% as heat energy. (The sun’s heat data shows ~1% loss as heat with perhaps as much again absorbed in helium formation.)The expansion of time predicts that Enceladus is generating heat at a rate of 3.9 x 1016 watts.(0.39 kge.s-1) The above calculations suggest that ~90% of that heat is still entrapped within Enceladus and continuing to melt more and more of its icy core.Eventually the internal pressure will cause Enceladus to burst, like an overheated boiler, shattering its residual coat. This raises the interesting possibility that Saturn’s magnificent ring systems are the remains of other Enceladus-like icy moons that have passed through this cycle of destruction.  That is if there were previous ice moons, the ring systems are an inevitable consequence, of the expansion of time and its reciprocaleffect on mass.

 

5.  The Oort clouds and the background microwave radiation.

The background microwave radiation has been attributed to being a relic of the Big Bang. There are strict consequences on that interpretation. These are:

(i) That at its edges the universe has a reflective surface that is capable of infinite expansion. The microwaves are travelling towards earth from all directions. Some therefore are travelling towards each other. If they originated from one location they would be travelling outwards. Either the microwaves are repeatedly absorbed by space and then re-radiated or they are being reflected.

(ii) That the solar system is at the centre of the universe. Irrespective of direction the microwaves have a very narrow band of frequency and amplitude. But amplitude decreases with the distance travelled.  The amplitude homogeneity of the microwaves implies that broadly they have all travelled the same distance.

(iii) That space absorbs and then re-radiates the energy of the microwaves at a lower frequency. The big bang, by definition was extremely hot, resulting in high frequency short wavelength radiation. The microwaves show a very low temperature. That is the wavelength has lengthened and the frequency changed since the Big Bang. But electromagnetic waves cannot change their frequency or wavelength whilst in transit as this would violate the maxim of the constancy of the velocity of light. A train of waves that stretched whilst in transit means that the leading waves travelled faster than those at the rear.  Furthermore if space absorbs and then re-radiates the energy the sun as it orbits around our galaxy would leave a trail of radiation in its wake. Absorption and then re-radiation  also means that the inverse square law is not applicable to all astronomical observations. More significantly if stretching of electromagnetic waves occurred during transit the spectrum of the most distant supernovas would be very different from those of nearby supernovas, but apart from the red shift they are not.

The expansion of time hypothesis with its effect on mass offers a much simpler alternative. The solar system is enveloped by a cloud of dust, that dust having originated from the supernova that spawned the solar system. The Crab nebula shows that supernovas can have an expanding dusty outline. With the expansion of time some of that dust is reverting to energy.For any given cubic kilometre the energy produced is extremely small, showing a temperature that is a little above absolute zero. One important consequence is that the dust will inevitably vary slightly in density and this would be reflected in the energy per cubic kilometre. Viewed from earth or near earth there would be slightly warmer spots depending upon the local density of the dust.

The conclusion must be that the solarsystem is surrounded by a layer of thin dust. This dust is responsible, through the effect of time slowing on mass, for the background microwave radiation.  This accounts not only for the  hot spots seen when that radiation was measured but also for the otherwise uniformity of the strength of that signal irrespective of the direction of looking. One possible  location for the dust is the Oort clouds that surround the solar system.

6. The earth’s heat.

 The earth is excessively warm. The expansion of time through its effect on mass results in significant heat production. This applies to the earth. In addition there is heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements. This is in spite of the cooling effect of producing ~1017kg of oxygen that exists in our atmosphere from the heating of sub-ducted sand (Silicon dioxide dissociates into pure silicon and oxygen at temperatures of circa 1000o C.  The photosynthesis theory of the source of atmospheric oxygen is a speculationunsupported by any evidence-which should be ~0.2 tonsof raw carbon or un-oxidised hydrocarbons per square metre of PreCambrian rock). That is the time expansion effect on earth’s mass predicts that the earth is hotter than it should befrom just the decay of the radioactive elements given their relative abundance.  And this is what has been found (Labrosse 2004).

 

7.  Saturn, Titan and Uranus: The problem of heat.

Saturn is almost ten times more distant from the sun than is theearth.   Its solar constant is therefore only 1% that of earth, ~14 Joules per square meter per second yet it has  a surface temperature of ~120oK. Titan has a similar temperature yet is able to maintain lakes if not oceans of liquid hydrocarbons.    Uranus is even further  from the sun, approximately twenty times earth’s distance. Its solarheat input is therefore only ~3 joules per square metre  per second. It is 1/6th the mass of Saturn.    Its surface temperature is ~30oK.  The only other radiant  energy available is the lowly background microwaveradiation  corresponding to a temperature below 3oK.That is heat energy should be travellingfrom the planets  to the source of the microwaves. Like Jupiter these two gasgiants have no radioactive energy as a source of heat. None has as yet been identified in Titan.  The expansion of time through its effect on mass would provide the necessary heat energy.

 

Supportive evidence

There are three instances where the conclusion that the universe is 13.7 billion years old or less cannot be right. It follows that the assumptions underlying the calculations used to arrive that this figure must be flawed. The only assumption that is common to these three instances is that time, the period of the second, is constant.

Instance i.The age of the globular clusters. From their spectra and magnitude the 150+ globular clusters of starsin our galaxy are all very old. Within each cluster the age is constant although there are small variations between different clusters (Cudworth  1992)  Nevertheless some indicate an age that is greater than the proposed age of the universe which is impossible.

Instance ii. The distance paradox. The Sloan survey shows that we are surrounded by galaxies that are more than 10 billion light years away.  But the sum of the distances, in light years, of two galaxies that are on opposite sides of the universe cannot exceed the age of the universe in years. It would take time for the material making these galaxies to travel that distance from the site of any Big Bang and then for their light to travel to reach our galaxy. If the outward journey was at the speed of light the material could not formgalaxies. Furthermore the stars would have to go through their life cycles before exploding as supernova to be visible to our telescopes.

Instance iii.   The Michelson and Morley problem. Looking at distant objects in effect is looking backwards in time. Modern telescopes can see backwards to within a billion years of the Big Bang, assuming an age of 13.7 billion years.  But the light from those objects has travelled a very long way.  The light was emitted when the universe young and comparatively very small, that is within a billion light years of our galaxy. The Michelson and Morley experiment shows that time taken for light to travelis independent of either the motion of the observer, or usingrelativity’s equivalence concept, independent of the motion of space. If space were expanding (and taking the newly formed object with it) the object’s original light, emitted when the universe wasonly a billion years old and so the objects were much nearer, would have reached our galaxy long ago. Alternatively either the speed of light is not constant but originally was much slower—which makes even older those very distant galaxies found in the Sloan survey. Or Michelson and Morleyare wrong, the speed of light relative to earth does depend upon the motion of space. If Michelson and Morley are correct the age of the universe in earth time must be at least twice the distance to the Sloan galaxies when that is reckoned in light years. The concept of expanding time and a very long cosmological age gets rid of these paradoxes.